A term first used in 1837 specifically to describe the art associated with Charlemagne, king of the franks, who was crowned holly Roman Emperor in Rome in 800. Charlemagne's own empire expanded to include parts of modern day France, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, and Italy. He was particularly concerned to achieve a revival of the idea of the later, Christian Roman empire under the emperors Constantine and Theodosius. The art produced during his reign was a fusion of *Insular, late antique, and *Byzantine traditions. It embraced architecture, sculpture, manuscript illumination, and liturgical objects: amongst its many glories were the palace complex at Aachen and the abbey churches of St Denis and Fulda. More generally the term is also applied to the art produced under Charlemagne's successors up to the beginning of the 10th century.